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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: (a) A patient with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome used abdominal pressure to void; there was no bladder outlet obstruction. (b) Ulcerative interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with terminal detrusor overactivity and a positive potassium chloride test during videourodynamic study. (c) In a woman with ketamine cystitis, videourodynamic study revealed detrusor overactivity, a contracted bladder, high-grade vesicoureteral reflux, and increased urethral sphincter activity during voiding (arrows), which resulted in high voiding pressure and severe bladder pain

Figure 1: (a) A patient with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome used abdominal pressure to void; there was no bladder outlet obstruction. (b) Ulcerative interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with terminal detrusor overactivity and a positive potassium chloride test during videourodynamic study. (c) In a woman with ketamine cystitis, videourodynamic study revealed detrusor overactivity, a contracted bladder, high-grade vesicoureteral reflux, and increased urethral sphincter activity during voiding (arrows), which resulted in high voiding pressure and severe bladder pain